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Teoria probabilității în tranzacționare. Odds - Wikipedia

It is 6 times as likely that a random day is not a Sunday. Gambling usage[ edit ] The use of odds in gambling facilitates betting on events where the relative probabilities of outcomes varied.

teoria probabilității în tranzacționare

For example, on a coin toss or a match race between two evenly matched horses, it is reasonable for two people to wager level stakes. However, in more variable situations, such as a multi-runner horse race or a football match between two unequally matched sides, betting "at odds" provides a perspective on the relative likelihoods of the possible outcomes.

In the modern era, most fixed odds betting takes place between a betting organisation, such as a bookmakerand an individual, rather than between individuals.

Different traditions have grown up in how to express odds to customers, older eras came with betting odds between people, today which is illegal in most countries, it was referred as "odding", an underground slang word with origins based in the Bronx. Fractional odds[ edit ] Favoured by bookmakers in the United Kingdom and Irelandand also common in horse racingfractional odds quote the net total that will be paid out to the bettor, should he or she win, relative to the stake.

The numerator and denominator of fractional odds are always integersthus if the bookmaker's payout was to be £1. However, not all fractional odds are traditionally read using the lowest common denominator.

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Fractional odds are also known as British odds, UK odds, [10] or, in that country, traditional odds. Odds with a denominator of 1 are often presented in listings as the numerator only.

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Fractional and Hong Kong odds are actually exchangeable. The only difference is that the UK odds are presented as a fractional notation e.

teoria probabilității în tranzacționare

Both exhibit the net return. The European odds also represent the potential winnings net returnsbut in addition they factor in the stake e.

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Therefore, the decimal odds of an outcome are equivalent teoria probabilității în tranzacționare the decimal value of the fractional odds plus one.

This is considered to be ideal for parlay betting, because the odds to be paid out are simply the product of the odds for each outcome wagered on. When looking at decimal odds in betting terms, the underdog has the higher of the two decimals, while the favorite has the lower of the two. Decimal odds are favoured by betting exchanges because they are the easiest to work with for trading, as they reflect the inverse of the probability of an outcome.

Decimal odds are also known as European odds, digital odds or continental odds.

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  • Odds - Wikipedia

The figure quoted is either positive or negative. Moneyline odds are often referred to as American odds. A "moneyline" wager refers to odds on the straight-up outcome of a game with no consideration to a point spread.

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In most cases, the favorite will have negative moneyline odds less payoff for a safer bet and the underdog will have positive moneyline odds more payoff teoria probabilității în tranzacționare a risky bet. However, if the teams are evenly matched, both teams can have a negative line at the same time e.

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Gambling odds versus probabilities[ edit ] Main article: Mathematics of bookmaking In gambling, the odds on display do not represent the true chances as imagined by the bookmaker that the event will or will not occur, but are the amount that the bookmaker will pay out on a winning bet, together with the required stake.

In formulating the odds to display the bookmaker will have included a profit margin which effectively means that the payout to a successful bettor is less than that represented by the true chance of the event occurring.

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The true odds against winning for each of the three horses areand respectively. This represents the odds against each, which are teoria probabilității în tranzacționare, andin order. This value of 30 represents the amount of profit for the bookmaker if he gets bets in good proportions on each of the horses.

For example, if he takes £60, £50, and £20 of stakes respectively for the three horses, he receives £ in wagers but only pays £ back including stakeswhichever horse wins. And the expected value of his profit is positive even if everybody bets on the same horse.

teoria probabilității în tranzacționare

The art of bookmaking is in setting the odds low enough so as to have a positive expected value of profit opțiunea barinar opțiune de revizuire keeping the odds high enough to attract customers, and at the same time attracting enough bets for each outcome to reduce his risk exposure. A study on soccer betting found that the probability for the home team to win was generally about 3.

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It was about 3. Sports information services are often used by professional and semi-professional sports bettors to help achieve this goal.

teoria probabilității în tranzacționare

The odds or amounts the bookmaker will pay are determined by the total amount that has been bet on all of the possible events. They reflect the balance of wagers on either side of the event, and include the deduction of a bookmaker's brokerage fee "vig" or vigorish.